First Weblog Entry.
This morning while talking to a bus driver about a hybrid bus and how it was less efficient than a hybrid car, I began to recall the following tidbits of technical information:
There is a device capable of directly converting heat into electrical current. And it’s very efficient. It’s called a Copper Junction Diode. I recall them being used in mass transit vehicles. The vehicle uses a direct injection diesel engine with no water pump, no alternator drive, a dry sump oiling system, no power steering pump etc. In fact it has no output shaft on the front of the engine at all. It runs on naptha oil, a mixture of plant oils and naptha. The naptha is distilled from plants using various biological processes much like wine comes from grapes. The naptha is added to a plant oil to help complete the combustion process and it’s used to power a direct injection, electronic valve diesel engine.
To drive the power brakes, power steering pump, heater, air conditioner, charge the battery and run the lights and audio systems, a Copper Junction Diode Pack is inserted in a ceramic coated exhaust chamber very near the engine exhaust ports. Since there are no parasitic pumps to sap torsion power from the engine, it’s much more responsive and far more efficient as an engine. The Copper Junction Diode works using three different metals. One side (cathode) is aluminum, the center sandwich is clean copper (clean as it can be made; no O2, no hydrogen, no azine, denzine, benzine or other phosphorous or mineral pollutants) and the third side is platnimum. One electrode is connected to the platinum output, the aluminum is the ground and the elemental copper is the di-similar dilectric material.
Each Copper Junction generates about 300 amps of bubbled (slowly changing voltage) Direct Current. Using X/2FC converters wired in inverse series loops will produce an AC current as well. A mass transit vehicle typically had two of them in it’s exhaust. The Copper Junction Diode converts heat directly to electrical current so that the more current it delivers, the more heat it draws from the exhaust by cooling the aluminum cathode. It was designed as a way to recovery some of the heat from the diesel exhaust of the large vehicles used for mass transit. Since the torsion energy from the engine is used to drive only the wheels, it runs better and it’s heat is delivered to the converters rather than wasted as a pollutant.
An early testing stage design used a naptha-oil oven to heat the converters directly but it was noted that using the heat in a combustion engine was far more efficient since there is no noticeable heat loss associated with burning the fuel in a diesel before converting it to usable current. The overall system is so efficient it can run a city sized bus over 25 miles on a gallon of naturally generated, nature cycle replaceable Naptha-Oil. Naptha Oil is made from natural plant oils. The oil is first pressed from an oil bearing plant then the remaining desiduous material is culminated into naptha, a material similar to methyl alcohol. The only difficulty is finding and maintaining the culture to produce naptha efficiently. If done proprly and with care, the naptha does not have to be refied at all. It can be mixed directly into the pressed oil to form the Naptha Oil Fuel.
The bus engine was designed to run on naptha oil only. Using a petroleum product as a fuel destroys the converters due partly to the high sulphur content and also to the other high temp combustable materials that are generally refined out of the petrol before sale as a fuel. Petrolium Oil has been sitting in the ground for a long long time and usually becomes polluted with mineral sulphurs which are partly the cause of sooting in a diesel. The other cause is the extreme heat (2600 deg?) many conventional diesels generate during the initial fuel pressing (injection) which does not give those hard pollutants time to burn.
A Direct injection system only presses enough fuel into the combustion chamber to satisfy requested torque demand whereas a BTC injection diesel wastes part of the stroke (injecting Before top center) overcoming the compression stroke of the other cylinders. By injecting a better quality, non phosphorous (no sulphur) fuel late in the cycle, as late as 60 deg ATC, the direct injection diesel engine is extremely efficient at converting gas expansion to torque. As long as there is sufficient compression to press-flash the fuel, the engine is extremely efficient and will always fire. Also, with Naptha-Oil as a fuel, the base compression can be reduced to roughly 18.5:1 (closed valve test) rather than the usual 20:1 or 23:1 of some BTC-pressing diesel engines. A direct injection engine is also very efficient because it presses fuel into the cylinder at a variable rate, causing a flame front at the injector tip. This flame front pushes downwards into the open cylinder area drawing more fresh air towards the injector and the continually forming flame front. Using electronic valve timing (hydraulically actuated rotary valves driven by an on-demand electric utility pump) the compression ratio can be maintained well above 8000 RPM while still allowing full stroke fuel burn. Add a turbo to the mix and adjust valve timing to compensate and the Center push, Direct injection Turbo diesel engine is the most efficient way to burn ANY fuel, even refined gasoline. It does require some autonomous electronics to keep the valves in time and determine the appropirate fuel pressure and press stage (angle ATC+length).
Additionally the Copper Junction Diodes can be refitted if they become less efficient. The Junction is broken apart (heated to 2200 degrees or so to POP separate the aluminum from the copper) and the copper pad is placed in an ion exchange device that uses various chemical to remove impurities from the copper. While still in the clean chamber the other two metals are flash attached to the copper again and the entire unit is sealed using a ceramic glassing agent to prevent the copper from absorbing further impurities. A failure to produce sufficient output indicates the copper is probably polluted, meaning the seal has probably been compromised, or it’s been exposed to exhaust gasses which means the ceramic glassing has failed for some reason. The copper diode juncion FET (Field Effect TransStator) can deliver current up to about 2800 degrees. Greater temperatures cause the junction to begin to break down and rapid failure occurs rather shortly.
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